Nginx源码编译安装与负载均衡配置实践


参考文档:
http://blog.s135.com/post/306/
http://wangyan.org/blog/install-nginx-from-source.html

安装与配置实践:
1. 安装pcre库,使Nginx支持正则表达式
# wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-8.30.tar.gz
# tar -xzvf pcre-8.30.tar.gz
注:不需要执行编译和安装过程(系统通常已经安装有较低版本的RPM包),因此仅作为编译Nginx时的引用。

2. 安装zlib库
wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/libpng/files/zlib/1.2.6/zlib-1.2.6.tar.gz/download
tar -xzvf zlib-1.2.6.tar.gz
注:不需要执行编译和安装过程(系统通常已经安装有较低版本的RPM包),因此仅作为编译Nginx时的引用。

3. 编译安装Nginx
# wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.1.9.tar.gz
# tar -xzvf nginx-1.1.9.tar.gz

# mkdir -p /opt/nginx/tmp
# mkdir -p /opt/nginx/run
# mkdir -p /opt/nginx/lock

# useradd nginx

# cd nginx-1.1.9
# ./configure --prefix=/opt/nginx \
--user=nginx \
--group=nginx \
--pid-path=/opt/nginx/run/nginx.pid \
--lock-path=/opt/nginx/lock/nginx.lock \
--with-http_ssl_module \
--with-http_dav_module \
--with-http_flv_module \
--with-http_realip_module \
--with-http_gzip_static_module \
--with-http_stub_status_module \
--with-mail \
--with-mail_ssl_module \
--with-pcre=../pcre-8.30 \
--with-zlib=../zlib-1.2.6 \
--with-debug \
--http-client-body-temp-path=/opt/nginx/tmp/client \
--http-proxy-temp-path=/opt/nginx/tmp/proxy \
--http-fastcgi-temp-path=/opt/nginx/tmp/fastcgi \
--http-uwsgi-temp-path=/opt/nginx/tmp/uwsgi \
--http-scgi-temp-path=/opt/nginx/tmp/scgi

参数详解:
--prefix #nginx安装目录,默认在/usr/local/nginx
--user=nginx #运行nginx的用户
--group=nginx #运行nginx的用户组
--pid-path #pid问件位置,默认在logs目录
--lock-path #lock问件位置,默认在logs目录
--with-http_ssl_module #开启HTTP SSL模块,以支持HTTPS请求。
--with-http_dav_module #开启WebDAV扩展动作模块,可为文件和目录指定权限
--with-http_flv_module #支持对FLV文件的拖动播放
--with-http_realip_module #支持显示真实来源IP地址
--with-http_gzip_static_module #预压缩文件传前检查,防止文件被重复压缩
--with-http_stub_status_module #取得一些nginx的运行状态
--with-mail #允许POP3/IMAP4/SMTP代理模块
--with-mail_ssl_module #允许POP3/IMAP/SMTP可以使用SSL/TLS
--with-pcre=../pcre-8.11 #指定未安装的pcre路径
--with-zlib=../zlib-1.2.5 #注意是未安装的zlib路径
--with-debug #允许调试日志
--http-client-body-temp-path #客户端请求临时文件路径
--http-proxy-temp-path #设置http proxy临时文件路径
--http-fastcgi-temp-path #设置http fastcgi临时文件路径
--http-uwsgi-temp-path #设置uwsgi 临时文件路径
--http-scgi-temp-path #设置scgi 临时文件路径

# make && make install

安装完成后会看到以下信息:

---
Configuration summary
+ using PCRE library: ../pcre-8.30
+ using system OpenSSL library
+ md5: using OpenSSL library
+ sha1: using OpenSSL library
+ using zlib library: ../zlib-1.2.6

nginx path prefix: "/opt/nginx"
nginx binary file: "/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx"
nginx configuration prefix: "/opt/nginx/conf"
nginx configuration file: "/opt/nginx/conf/nginx.conf"
nginx pid file: "/opt/nginx/run/nginx.pid"
nginx error log file: "/opt/nginx/logs/error.log"
nginx http access log file: "/opt/nginx/logs/access.log"
nginx http client request body temporary files: "/opt/nginx/tmp/client"
nginx http proxy temporary files: "/opt/nginx/tmp/proxy"
nginx http fastcgi temporary files: "/opt/nginx/tmp/fastcgi"
nginx http uwsgi temporary files: "/opt/nginx/tmp/uwsgi"
nginx http scgi temporary files: "/opt/nginx/tmp/scgi"
---

4. 配置Nginx服务脚本
# mkdir -p /opt/nginx/init.d

# vim /opt/nginx/init.d/nginx

#!/bin/sh
#
# nginx - this script starts and stops the nginx daemin
#
# chkconfig:   - 85 15 
# description:  Nginx is an HTTP(S) server, HTTP(S) reverse \
#               proxy and IMAP/POP3 proxy server
# processname: nginx
# config:      /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
# pidfile:     /usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid

# Source function library.
. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions

# Source networking configuration.
. /etc/sysconfig/network

# Check that networking is up.
[ "$NETWORKING" = "no" ] && exit 0

nginx="/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx"
prog=$(basename $nginx)

NGINX_CONF_FILE="/opt/nginx/conf/nginx.conf"

lockfile=/opt/nginx/lock/nginx.lock

start() {
    [ -x $nginx ] || exit 5
    [ -f $NGINX_CONF_FILE ] || exit 6
    echo -n $"Starting $prog: "
    daemon $nginx -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
    retval=$?
    echo
    [ $retval -eq 0 ] && touch $lockfile
    return $retval
}

stop() {
    echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
    killproc $prog -QUIT
    retval=$?
    echo
    [ $retval -eq 0 ] && rm -f $lockfile
    return $retval
}

restart() {
    configtest || return $?
    stop
    start
}

reload() {
    configtest || return $?
    echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
    killproc $nginx -HUP
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
}

force_reload() {
    restart
}

configtest() {
  $nginx -t -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
}

rh_status() {
    status $prog
}

rh_status_q() {
    rh_status >/dev/null 2>&1
}

case "$1" in
    start)
        rh_status_q && exit 0
        $1
        ;;
    stop)
        rh_status_q || exit 0
        $1
        ;;
    restart|configtest)
        $1
        ;;
    reload)
        rh_status_q || exit 7
        $1
        ;;
    force-reload)
        force_reload
        ;;
    status)
        rh_status
        ;;
    condrestart|try-restart)
        rh_status_q || exit 0
            ;;
    *)
        echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|restart|condrestart|try-restart|reload|force-reload|configtest}"
        exit 2
esac

# chmod +x /opt/nginx/init.d/nginx

这样,就可以通过以下方式来管理Nginx服务:
# /opt/nginx/init.d/nginx start
# /opt/nginx/init.d/nginx stop
# /opt/nginx/init.d/nginx restart
# /opt/nginx/init.d/nginx reload

5. Nignx负载均衡配置
# cd /opt/nginx/conf/
# mv nginx.conf nginx.conf.bak

# vim /opt/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

user  nginx nginx;

worker_processes 10;

error_log  logs/error.log;

worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;

events 
{
      use epoll;
      worker_connections 51200;
}

http 
{
      include       mime.types;
      default_type  application/octet-stream;

      keepalive_timeout 120;

      tcp_nodelay on;

      upstream  192.168.203.133  {
              #ip_hash;
              server   192.168.203.134:80;
              server   192.168.203.135:80;
              server   192.168.203.136:80;
              server   192.168.203.137:80;
      }

      server
      {
              listen  80;
              server_name  192.168.203.133;

              location / {
                       proxy_pass        http://192.168.203.133;
                       proxy_set_header   Host             $host;
                       proxy_set_header   X-Real-IP        $remote_addr;
                       proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-For  $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
              }

              log_format  192_168_203_133  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] $request '
                                '"$status" $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                                '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';
              access_log  /opt/nginx/logs/cluster.log 192_168_203_133;
      }
}

启动Nginx服务
# /opt/nginx/init.d/nginx start

通过浏览器直接访问http://192.168.203.133,可以发现,在多次刷新之后,请求会随机分配到后端的Web服务器上。

  1. #1 by mcsrainbow on 2012/03/28 - 17:54

    如果想要实现动静分离的话,只需要增加以下配置:
    location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|png|css|js|htm|html)$ {
    proxy_pass http://image.heylinux.com;
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
    proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
    }
    这样,所有的静态文件都会从image上获取。

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